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UPDATED: Aug 7, 2021

As Epi4Dogs has repeatedly stated, it has now been proven via a 2021 USA study at Tufts University (actual research study included below) that it is too many peas/legumes that are the problem, not all grain-free foods.  Epi4Dogs has repeatedly stated for years to AVOID foods with peas or with too many peas/legumes/lentils simply because they do not agree with our EPI dogs and often triggers uncontrolled SID (small intestinal dysbiosis) .  It now appears that this also is the main food trigger for Cardiomyopathy  too………………………

“Upon detailed analysis through a process called foodomics, researchers found that the ingredient most strongly linked to suspect compounds was peas. However, the FDA is not considering a ban on peas in dog foods yet. According to the agency, because “legumes and pulses have been used in pet foods for many years, [there is] no evidence to indicate they are inherently dangerous”.

Rather, the problem may be one of quantity, as the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine indicates that pulse ingredients are used in many ‘grain-free’ diets in greater proportion than in most grain-containing formulas.”

Aug 2021 Announcement  of the Cardiomyopathy Research  US study finds potential dog food link to canine heart disease | Dogs | The Guardian

2021 USA Tufts Univ Cardiomyopathy Research …… “it’s the Peas… Too many!!!”
CardioMyopathy research-PEAS




There has been a lot of chatter about grain free foods causing cardiomyopathy in the past few years….. and unfortunately people are not getting all the details but rather just sound bites in the news media  and vets saying not to give grain free foods. This is very disturbing on two fronts, (1) Cardiomyopathy is serious and should be dealt with facts not hysteria (2)  For many EPI dogs…avoiding grain-free foods could sadly be detrimental to their health.  For our EPI dogs, “most” need to avoid legumes/lentils or at the very least avoid over-abundance of too many legumes/lentils in their food. Other grain may (or may not) be tolerable.  In the piece below i try to explain as best i can all the details of possible causes of cardiomyopathy….

1. The Whole Dog Journal recently came out with a piece on Taurine/Cardiomyopathy, that…..  IMHO…. best sums it up in nice easy “lay” terms while still giving you all the scientific details known to date.  Please feel free to read this very good Whole Dog Journal article:

2. January 2020, Review of canine dilated cardiomyopathy in the wake of diet-associated concerns finally a FULL research that explains all the many variables involved in Cardiomyopathy…. and how the public was mislead with stay away from grain free foods sound bytes… as there is so much more to the issue, who is susceptible, why, and how to test for and address it.

Review of canine dilated cardiomyopathy in the wake of diet-associated concerns

Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue 6, June 2020, skaa155,

Board Review of Cardiacmyopathy


Dr. Joshua Stern on Cardiomyopathy, Taurine & GrainFree Foods

An Overview of Taurine, Cardiomyopathy, Grain-Free Diets, and EPI dogs.

Recently there has been an uptick in Cardiomyopathy caused by Taurine deficiency and rumors have spread like wildfire that it is from grain-free foods. But the rumors of it being caused by grain-free foods, without thorough explanation is a huge disservice to  our pets and pet owners. Diet caused Taurine deficiency in dogs is nothing new, it was actually researched 15 years ago, long before grain-free food was even available.

It is not that grain-free diets are bad … is that too much of specific ingredients used in excess in some grain-free diets may reduce the Taurine status in a dog’s body that might lead to Cardiomyopathy when other factors are involved!

EPI Dogs
Most EPI dogs (but not every single EPI dog) tend to do better on low-fiber diets simply because EPI dogs have to have enzymes on their food to survive.  The problem is that fiber can interfere with anywhere between 0% to 50% of the enzymatic activity- -however, we never know from one EPI dog to the next who will be affected and by how much when fed food with lots of fiber.  SO…. as a general blanket recommendation , we initially suggest to EPI owners to start with a low fiber food, usually 4% or less fiber content and something without grains.  These foods are usually found in the “grain-free” section. We have also repeatedly warned people NOT to buy grain-free foods loaded with multiple pea products (peas, pea protein, pea fiber, pea flour)  – -as  our EPI dogs appear to have difficulty digesting these overloaded pea laden foods. Our recommendation has always been, if possible, to give preference to diets that use sweet potatoes not peas or white potato.
Fast forward to recent news……………………………..

Taurine is a free amino acid that is mostly found in body tissues and floating in the blood. For purposes of this diet discussion,   Taurine facilitates normal heart function and is a component of bile acids in the liver to form bile salts that are secreted into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion. The body then re-absorbs the bile salts from the small intestine back into the body.  This prevents daily loss of Taurine in the feces.
When something causes the degradation of bile salts or inhibits its reabsorption- -like too much of certain food sources such as peas, lentils, chickpeas (legumes) and potatoes, Taurine is lost through the feces, and this may cause Taurine deficiency in some dogs.

Suspected causes of Taurine Deficiency in Dogs – Genetics and/or Diet
Genetically we know that large breed dogs and dogs with slow metabolism may be more at risk for Taurine deficiency as are certain breeds:  (American Cocker Spaniel, English Setter, Golden & Labrador Retrievers, Newfoundland & St. Bernards). But for purposes of this discussion, we will focus on diet.

It is now suspected that there might be several factors involved…..
(1) diets with too much dietary fiber/starch resistance and the (2) wrong type of dietary protein (plant protein vs. animal protein) causing reduced Taurine reabsorption and (3) how much heat was used during processing causing degradation/increased bacteria, triggering poor digestion in the small intestine also leading to reduced Taurine reabsorption.

How to handle
Diets over-loaded (high on the list of ingredients) in peas, lentils, legumes or legume seeds such as chick peas, garbanzo beans, soybeans, other beans), potatoes, or soy-based diets, rice-bran diets,high beet pulp diets and high fiber diets..or lamb (low protein) and rice diets or diets that use multiple sources of these items even if  lower on the list of ingredients…. AVOID!  There are many grain-free canned and kibble diets, raw diets, home-cooked diets that do not include an over abundance of these detrimental food sources……. READ the ingredients- -do your research- -use common sense!!!!!

FYI, the sweet potato botanically is completely unrelated to potatoes. The sweet potato belongs to the morning glory family, the potato belongs to the night-shade family. Although both do have starch resistance, sweet potatoes have less starch resistance than white potato.  As long as sweet potato is not over-represented in a diet, it is still a very good food source for dog food. If the sweet potato is home cooked and then chilled, this dramatically removes the starch resistance, hence why it is very good to include in a home-prepared diet.

FYI, a food with a pea/legume or potato source listed once and listed low on the list of ingredients should be fine.

Dogs need sufficient high levels of animal sourced protein, not plant sourced protein…. and they
do not need high levels of dietary fiber.

With regards to our EPI dogs, this is something that we have been saying over and over again for years…… without even realizing that there could be a Cardiomyopathy issue too.  We have simply touted this high meat (or fish) and low fiber content food for years because we have observed that our EPI dogs do much better, and tend to get SID under much better control when on low fiber high, quality protein foods……………..

Thank you for taking the time to read this. I felt compelled to write this due to the fact that some people are asking why is Epi4Dogs still recommending grain-free foods??? Our pets are fighting a chronic illness on a daily basis and depend on us as their life-line… their care-giver.  I am very concerned when people take media “sound-bites” as gospel truth instead of thoroughly investigating a topic especially when it comes to their pet’s health.  Please do your research and use common sense.

Olesia C. Kennedy,
Founder & Research Director, Epi4Dogs Foundation, Inc.

Journal of Nutrition

Taurine Synthesis in Dogs :  Size Matters!!!!

Taurine Synthesis in Dogs-Size


FDA Investigating Potential Connection Between Diet and Cases of Canine Heart Disease

July 12, 2018

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is alerting pet owners and veterinary professionals about reports of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs eating certain pet foods containing peas, lentils, other legume seeds, or potatoes as main ingredients. These reports are unusual because DCM is occurring in breeds not typically genetically prone to the disease. The FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine and the Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network, a collaboration of government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories, are investigating this potential association.

Canine DCM is a disease of a dog’s heart muscle and results in an enlarged heart. As the heart and its chambers become dilated, it becomes harder for the heart to pump, and heart valves may leak, leading to a buildup of fluids in the chest and abdomen. DCM often results in congestive heart failure. Heart function may improve in cases that are not linked to genetics with appropriate veterinary treatment and dietary modification, if caught early.

The underlying cause of DCM is not truly known, but is thought to have a genetic component. Breeds that are typically more frequently affected by DCM include large and giant breed dogs, such as Great Danes, Boxers, Newfoundlands, Irish Wolfhounds, Saint Bernards and Doberman Pinschers. It is less common in small and medium breed dogs, except American and English Cocker Spaniels. However, the cases that have been reported to the FDA have included Golden and Labrador Retrievers, Whippets, a Shih Tzu, a Bulldog and Miniature Schnauzers, as well as mixed breeds.

Diets in cases reported to the FDA frequently list potatoes or multiple legumes such as peas, lentils, other “pulses” (seeds of legumes), and their protein, starch and fiber derivatives early in the ingredient list, indicating that they are main ingredients. Early reports from the veterinary cardiology community indicate that the dogs consistently ate these foods as their primary source of nutrition for time periods ranging from months to years. High levels of legumes or potatoes appear to be more common in diets labeled as “grain-free,” but it is not yet known how these ingredients are linked to cases of DCM. Changes in diet, especially for dogs with DCM, should be made in consultation with a licensed veterinarian.

In the reports the FDA has received, some of the dogs showed signs of heart disease, including decreased energy, cough, difficulty breathing and episodes of collapse. Medical records for four atypical DCM cases, three Golden Retrievers and one Labrador Retriever, show that these dogs had low whole blood levels of the amino acid taurine. Taurine deficiency is well-documented as potentially leading to DCM. The Labrador Retriever with low whole blood taurine levels is recovering with veterinary treatment, including taurine supplementation, and a diet change. Four other cases of DCM in atypical dog breeds, a Miniature Schnauzer, Shih Tzu and two Labrador Retrievers, had normal blood taurine levels. The FDA continues to work with board certified veterinary cardiologists and veterinary nutritionists to better understand the clinical presentation of these dogs. The agency has also been in contact with pet food manufacturers to discuss these reports and to help further the investigation.

The FDA encourages pet owners and veterinary professionals to report cases of DCM in dogs suspected of having a link to diet by using the electronic Safety Reporting Portal or calling their state’s FDA Consumer Complaint Coordinators. Please see the link below about “How to Report a Pet Food Complaint” for additional instructions.

An excellent piece about Taurine, Grain-Free Food and Cardiomyopathy by Tufts University

It’s Not Just Grain-Free: An Update on Diet-Associated Dilated Cardiomyopathy

It’s Not Just Grain-Free: An Update on Diet-Associated Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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You may have read my June 4 post, “A broken heart: Risk of heart disease in boutique or grain-free diets and exotic ingredients.”  This post had more than 180,000 page views in the first week and continues to get more than 2000 page views a day.   So, I’m pleased that people are interested in this important issue and trying to learn about it.  But I’ve also found a tremendous amount of confusion and misinformation in the past 5 months including people who doubt that this is a real issue, some who still haven’t heard about it, and people who mistakenly think it’s just grain-free diets or that it’s only related to taurine.

As a result of the continued confusion, some of my cardiologist colleagues and I wrote an article which was published in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  This article provides a summary of our current understanding of diet-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), how to recognize it, and a recommended protocol for veterinarians to follow when they see dogs with DCM.

To be sure this information reaches as wide an audience as possible and to clear up confusion, I thought I’d provide some updates to address the most common misconceptions I’m hearing:

  1. It’s not just grain-free. This does not appear to be just an issue with grain-free diets.  I am calling the suspected diets, “BEG” diets – boutique companies, exotic ingredients, or grain-free diets.  The apparent link between BEG diets and DCM may be due to ingredients used to replace grains in grain-free diets, such as lentils or chickpeas, but also may be due to other common ingredients commonly found in BEG diets, such as exotic meats, vegetables, and fruits.  In addition, not all pet food manufacturers have the same level of nutritional expertise and quality control, and this variability could introduce potential issues with some products.
  1. Most dogs being diagnosed with DCM do not have low taurine levels. Some owners continue to feed a BEG diet but supplement taurine thinking that this will reduce their risk for heart disease.  In our hospital, we currently measure taurine in all dogs with DCM, but more than 90% of our patients with DCM in which taurine has been measured have normal levels (and the majority are eating BEG diets).  Yet some of these dogs with DCM and normal taurine levels improve when their diets are changed.  This suggests that there’s something else playing a role in most cases – either a deficiency of a different nutrient or even a toxicity that may be associated with BEG diets.  Giving taurine is unlikely to prevent DCM unless your dog has taurine deficiency.  And given the lack of quality control for dietary supplements, you can introduce new risks to your dog if you give a supplement without evidence that she needs it.
  1. Raw diets and homemade diets are not safe alternatives. Out of concern, some owners are switching from BEG diets to a raw or home-cooked diet.  However, we have diagnosed DCM in dogs eating these diets too.  And raw and home-cooked diets increase your dog’s risk for many other health problems.  So, forego the raw or home-cooked diets and stick with a commercial pet food made by a well-established manufacturer that contains common ingredients, including grains.  If your dog requires a home-prepared diet for a medical condition or you feel strongly about feeding one, I strongly recommend you consult with a Board-Certified Veterinary NutritionistTM (  However, because home-cooked diets are not tested for safety and nutritional adequacy like good quality commercial diets, deficiencies could still develop.

Current thoughts on DCM

Currently, it appears that there may be three separate groups of dogs with DCM (although this may change as we learn more). I am listing them in the approximate frequency that we are currently seeing them in our hospital:

  1. Diet-associated DCM with normal taurine levels. While this form of the disease was first identified in dogs of breeds not predisposed to DCM that are eating BEG diets, it appears to also occur in dogs of typical DCM breeds that are eating a BEG diet.
  2. Primary DCM in predisposed breeds that is unrelated to diet. This is the traditional, genetically-related DCM in typical breeds, such as the Doberman Pinscher, Boxer, Irish Wolfhound, and Great Dane.
  3. Diet-associated DCM with taurine deficiency: This is the least common form we are seeing in our hospital. This appears to happen both in breeds predisposed to DCM and breeds that are not predisposed to DCM.

Common questions

We still have a great deal to learn about diet-associated DCM.  However, I’m providing answers to some common questions I’ve been getting based on what is currently known:

  1. What’s causing diet-associated DCM in dogs? For the vast majority of dogs, we do not yet know what is causing this disease. There are definitely some dogs with DCM that have low taurine levels, many of which will improve with taurine supplementation and change of diet.  For dogs that have normal taurine levels, however, other nutritional deficiencies may be present. Some nutritional deficiencies can affect the heart’s normal function, so an insufficient amount of these nutrients (or reduced bioavailability) in the diet could cause heart disease.  Diet-associated DCM could also be due to an ingredient in the food that is toxic to the heart.  The FDA and many researchers are actively studying this issue so that it can be solved as quickly as possible.
  1. My dog was diagnosed with DCM. What should I do? Ask your veterinarian to measure taurine levels and give heart medications as directed by your veterinarian. If your dog is eating a BEG diet or other unconventional diet (including vegetarian, vegan, or home-prepared diets), I recommend following the steps outlined in my previous post, including switching to a non-BEG diet.  Three updates to my previous post are:
    • Taurine supplements: Consumer Lab is expected to release a report on independent quality control testing of taurine supplements in late 2018. Given the lack of quality control for dietary supplements (human and pet), having these results will be very useful to find good quality products for dogs that require taurine supplementation. Your veterinarian or veterinary cardiologist can help you determine an optimal dose for your dog.
    • Other dogs in the household: We are now recommending that other dogs in the household of dogs with DCM that are eating the same BEG diet be screened by their veterinarian since their hearts could also be affected (even if they are showing no symptoms).
    • Outcome: Not all dogs with DCM will improve and improvements in the echocardiogram, when they do occur, can take a long time (often more than 6 months).
  1. If my dog is eating a BEG diet but has no symptoms, should I test for DCM or switch to a different diet? It’s unlikely that most dogs eating a BEG diet will develop DCM. However, given the fact that we don’t yet understand why BEG diets are affecting some dogs and because DCM is a life-threatening disease, I recommend you reconsider your dog’s diet until we know more.  Contrary to popular belief, there are no health benefits of grain-free or exotic ingredient diets except in the rare case of food allergy. If your dog is a part of your family and you want to feed him the very best, be sure to base this important decision on more objective factors than marketing and the ingredient list (see our post). Be sure to watch for early signs of heart disease – weakness, slowing down, less able to exercise, shortness of breath, coughing, or fainting. If you notice any of these, get your dog checked out by your veterinarian who will listen for a heart murmur or abnormal heart rhythm (although not all dogs with DCM have any changes that can be heard with a stethoscope). Your veterinarian (or a veterinary cardiologist) may do additional tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, electrocardiogram, and ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram – the test of choice to diagnose DCM).Tell your veterinarian what you’re feeding your dog. You can help your veterinarian by bringing a list of everything your dog eats  to every appointment. If your dog has no symptoms, additional testing is really up to you.  Some owners have measured plasma and whole blood taurine levels or scheduled an echocardiogram to check their dog’s heart size and function.  However, given the cost of an echocardiogram, other owners have elected to have their veterinarian do a blood test called NT-proBNP, which goes up when the heart is enlarged.  While a normal value doesn’t guarantee your dog has no heart disease, a high level suggests your dog’s heart should be evaluated further. 
  2. Has diet-associated DCM been seen in cats? The association between BEG diets and heart disease has only been reported in dogs so far. However, that doesn’t mean cats are immune.  If your cat is diagnosed with DCM and is eating a BEG, vegetarian, vegan, or home-prepared diet, I recommend following the same protocol as described for dogs with DCM.

Lastly, if your dog has been eating a BEG diet and has been diagnosed with DCM, please don’t feel guilty. I’ve talked to owners who feel terrible because they wanted to provide the finest care for their dog by feeding them the best diet possible. They often spent a lot of money buying an expensive boutique diet and now that same diet may be associated with their dog’s heart disease. Trying to decide what is really the best food is confusing and difficult because of the many different products available, nutrition fads, and compelling marketing. My hope is that the one bright side of this serious situation is that it will shine a light on the complexities of making safe and nutritious pet food and the importance of nutritional expertise and quality control, rather than just what is new and trendy.


Lisa M. Freeman, DVM, PhD, DACVN

Dr. Freeman is a veterinary nutritionist and a professor at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. She is on the cutting-edge of science, with hundreds of articles in prestigious journals, speaking engagements at national and international conferences, and awards for her scientific achievements. However, she also is passionate about providing objective and accurate information on pet nutrition to veterinarians, pet owners, and other animal enthusiasts.

Putting it all in perspective………..

Do Not Panic GrainFree Foods2

An nice overview by the WholeDog Journal explaining this in layman’s terms

Taurine and dog food

Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy: 12 cases (1997-2001).



To determine signalment, history, clinical signs, blood and plasma taurine concentrations, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, treatment, and outcome of dogs with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).


Retrospective study.


12 client-owned dogs with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and DCM.


Medical records were reviewed, and clinical data were obtained.


All 12 dogs were being fed a commercial dry diet containing lamb meal, rice, or both as primary ingredients. Cardiac function and plasma taurine concentration improved with treatment and taurine supplementation. Seven of the 12 dogs that were still alive at the time of the study were receiving no cardiac medications except taurine.


Results suggest that consumption of certain commercial diets may be associated with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and DCM in dogs. Taurine supplementation may result in prolonged survival times in these dogs, which is not typical for dogs with DCM. Samples should be submitted for measurement of blood and plasma taurine concentrations in dogs with DCM, and taurine supplementation is recommended while results of these analyses are pending.

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I am waiting for permission from the researchers for a better printed version of this researcher to load on this website…. but until then, please ignore th large blank spaces between pages………

Dog Diet + taurine1