Select Page

Raw & Home Prepared & Recipes
(2024 new recipes added .. see below)

Food Ratio’s

For all those that will be reading these home-made or raw recipes and or suggestions… please know that no matter how good a diet “sounds” if you are going to prepare the meal yourself from scratch…. and serve it long-term….it needs to have the proper/sufficient amount of vitamins, minerals and bone. Please share with your vet or a vet nutritionist the composition of whatever meal you decide to feed your dog (or cat)  to make sure it has the appropriate ingredients for your pet’s needs!

  The above is a basic raw feeding “guideline”

We are including this “RAW FEEDING” chart because it closely reiterates what we suggest in raw feeding but it also lists nutritional attributes.  (permission to post this chart by “Designed by Boo”)  To order this “Raw Feeding Chart” or other products, please feel free to go to Boo’s website: or


    The below are raw feeding portion “guidelines” based on a dog’s weight

How much to feed ???

Dogs that are fed HOME-MADE or RAW should get 1% to 3% of their weight. With EPI dogs, start with 4% of their weight.  For example, if your EPI dogs weighs 78lbs…. then in the beginning of treating EPI start with a calculation of:

  • 78lbs x 0.04 = 3.12
  • 3.12 x 16 ounces = 49.92 ounces per day

If you find that your best friend is starting to get more than a little pleasantly plump… try backing down on the amount to something like 3% of their weight:

  • 78lbs x 0.03 = 2.34
  • 2.34 x 16 ounces = 37.44 ounces per day

“Since raw food is harder to measure by the cup since the densities of different meat/bones will require different levels of enzymes, it is easiest to go by weight rather than amount! ” To add the enzymes, you can either puree a portion of the raw meat and add the enzymes to that pureed slurry and pour over the remainder of the raw food, let sit for 20 minutes and serve, or you can add the enzymes to something like yogurt/kefir and either add to the food as mentioned above, or serve the enzymed slurry first ahead of the meal. Try both to see which works best with your EPI dog. (Thank you Cait for these great suggestions!)

A good site to visit with regards to Raw Food, brand names raw foods that are available located near you, and general information regarding feeding raw, please visit PRIMAL POOCH:

Epi4Dogs Home-prepared meal  “approximate” ratio’s

5-10% organ meat (liver, kidney, lungs, pancreas,gizzards, heart) Some consider heart a muscle meat other consider it as one of the top organ meats to serve.Kidney has the most packed nutrition)

10-20% bone. Normal dogs should have approx 25% bone matter..many EPI dogs have issues with too much bone, so start with half the amount (or use Bone Meal) and work your way up to see exactly how much bone your dog can or cannot handle.

0-30% vegetables All veggies need to be cooked and mashedGreen veggies, work best, or small amounts of sweet potato may be used. Which veggies and how much all depends on your individual dog.

The remainder % should be all Protein (meat/fish) skinned, de-fatted and must be ground or minced. We have found that many EPI dogs on a home-prepared meal tend to do best when the protein portion ranges anywhere from 85% to 75%.

Vitamins & Minerals Be sure to add a good source multivitamin with minerals or ask a vet nutritionist which supplements should be added to the diet to make sure it is balanced.

Oils With EPI dogs, we find that adding daily (unless another concurrent condition prohibits fats/oils)… either or / or alternate EFA (fish oils) and/or cold-pressed coconut oil as this greatly helps dogs with poor skin and coat.
The recommended dosages are: EFA’s suggested at 180mg per 10 lbs per day, or on alternate days give ½ to 1 teaspoon of cold pressed (virgin) coconut oil. is one source for a vet nutritional consultation with regards to preparing a home-prepared diet for your pup.



(added Jan ’24)

2024 Vet approved Home-made recipes for dogs:

Below, the first two PupLoaf’s recipes  (by Vet Dr. Judy Morgan)  are made with detailed but available ingredients so that extra supplements (vitamins/mineral/bone) need not be added in PupLoaf recipes #1 & #2.



  • 3 pounds beef (90% lean)
  • 8 ounces beef heart
  • 5 ounces beef liver
  • 20 ounces chicken gizzards
  • 3 cans sardines in water, minus the juice (no salt)
  • 6 ounces mussels (3 teaspoons kelp could replace the mussels for trace minerals)
  • 2 teaspoons ground fresh ginger
  • 5 eggs with shell
  • 3 ounces red bell pepper
  • 5 ounces mixed dark leafy greens (kale, chard, spinach)
  • 4 ounces broccoli
  • 6 ounces butternut squash
  • 3 tablespoons flax seed oil (or coconut oil)
  • 4 ounces cranberries
  • 4 ounces Shiitake mushrooms




  • 3 pounds ground beef (90% lean)
  • 10 ounces beef liver
  • 10 ounces chicken gizzards
  • 2 cans sardines in water (no salt)
  • 3 tablespoons sea kelp powder
  • 2 teaspoons grated fresh ginger
  • 5 large eggs with shell
  • 3 ounces red bell pepper
  • 5 ounces baby spinach leaves
  • 4 ounces broccoli
  • 6 ounces pumpkin
  • 3 tablespoons flax seed oil (or coconut oil)
  • 4 ounces Shiitake mushrooms



  1. Grind and mix all ingredients together.
  2. Pour into loaf, casserole, or muffin pans.
  3. Bake at 325 for 30 to 60 minutes depending on size of pan; should be lightly done, not overcooked (juicy in the center). If your pet has a beef or chicken allergy, turkey can be substituted.
  4. Use within 3-5 days, freeze extra portions.
  5. Feed warmed to room temperature.
  1. In general feed 20 to 30 calories per pound of body weight…Or stated another way, feed 2% to 3% of your dog’s weight. Puppies require double or feed 5% to 6% of their body weight. EPI dogs tend to need to be fed 4% of their body weight.

Portions will vary depending on the dog/age/activity/weight….. the following are the feeding guidelines. (taken from TONYA WILHELM’s website/Facebook page with regards to the nutritional calculations for Dr. Judy Morgan’s “Homemade PupLoaf” recipe).

Smaller dogs tend to eat amounts closer to the higher end of their weight range, while larger dogs tend to eat amount closer to the lower end of their weight range.

If your dog is active – lean towards the higher amount.
If your dog is a couch potato or overweight – lean towards the lower amount.

5 lbs   1.5 to 2.5 ounces   100 to 150 calories
10 lbs   3 to 5 ounces   200 to 300 calories
15 lbs   5 to 7 ounces   300 to 450 calories
20 lbs   6 to 10 ounces   400 to 600 calories
25 lbs   8 to 12 ounces   500 to 750 calories
30 lbs   10 to 14 ounces   600 to 900 calories
35 lbs   11 to 17 ounces   700 to 1,050 calories
40 lbs   13 to 19 ounces   800 to 1,200 calories
45 lbs   14 to 22 ounces   900 to 1,350 calories
50 lbs   16 to 24 ounces   1,000 to 1,500 calories
55 lbs   18 to 26 ounces   1,100 to 1,650 calories
60 lbs   19 to 29 ounces   1,200 to 1,800 calories
65 lbs   21 to 31 ounces   1,300 to 1,950 calories
70 lbs   22 to 34 ounces   1,400 to 2,100 calories
75 lbs   24 to 36 ounces   1,500 to 2,250 calories
80 lbs   26 to 38 ounces   1,600 to 2,400 calories
85 lbs   27 to 41 ounces   1,700 to 2,550 calories
90 lbs   29 to 43 ounces   1,800 to 2,700 calories
95 lbs   30 to 46 ounces   1,900 to 2,850 calories
100 lbs   32 to 48 ounces   2,000 to 3,000 calories


Running low on time or having trouble sourcing fancy indigents? No problem! This vet-approved, simplified version is by Clayton Veterinary Associates LLC. and Churchtown Veterinary Associates LLC.  features just four ingredients and its base are easily substituted with “The One” ( ) or another trusted supplement. Enjoy all of the convenience of the original Dr. Judy pup loaf recipe with this quick, modified twist on it.



  • 1 pound ground beef (85% lean or higher)
  • 1 pound ground turkey
  • 2 eggs
    1 scoop of “The One” supplement
  • Preheat your oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit and mix the ground beef and ground turkey together in a large bowl. Crack two eggs into the meat mixture and continue mixing until homogenized. Add The One into the meat and egg mixture, stir, and pour into one or two lightly greased loaf pans (olive oil is best). Bake for forty-five minutes to an hour, then remove and let cool before slicing. The loaf is best served warm and should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer until feeding.
    The recommended serving size is 4 ounces per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily. 


Created by Walkerville Vet, the recipe is designed for pet owners who want to be more discerning about what their dog is eating, either due to allergies or intolerances or simply out of a desire for a more natural, preservative-free meal option.

For more details, please visit their website:

Serves the requirements of an 8kg (17.5 lbs) dog for 3-4 days

  • 250g chopped beef or lamb, raw
  • 1 cup chopped carrots, raw
  • 1 cup chopped apple, raw
  • ¼ cup frozen peas, defrosted
  • 1½ cups chopped pumpkin or squash
  • ⅔ cup brown or basmati rice (will cook to 3 cups)
  • 4 teaspoons sunflower oil
  • 4g fish oil
  • Other ingredients? See below

Method: no need to get fancy.

  1. Cook the rice and pumpkin together until soft, and allow to cool
  2. Mix in the raw ingredients (dogs mostly also like their peas raw)
  3. Feed the required quantity per day, refrigerate the remainder
  4. Can be refrigerated for 3 days or frozen for 2 weeks

Other Ingredients

Analysis of almost any homemade meal would show multiple vitamin and mineral deficiencies. In practice, this may be tolerated by your dog but I recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement. Balance IT is designed for home-made diets and can be ordered from the USA, or you can use other supplements such as :
     The One,
     Balance It,
     Mercola Meal Mix,
     Animal Essential Seaweed Calcium (for bone/calcium matter).  

 It. If not using an added supplement, the following supplements can be ground together and mixed in the recipe after cooling:

  • 1 Cenovis® Zinc Tablet (25mg)
  • 1 Trace Nutrients or Interclinical Copper Plus tablet (2mg)
  • 1 g Iodised salt
  • 1 Centrum® Advance Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement

Start by cooking your rice and pumpkin together, heating until soft. Let cool, then mix in your raw ingredients. No need for further baking. This PupLoaf can be refrigerated for up to three days and leftovers can be safely frozen for up to two weeks.

All the ingredients used in PupLoaf recipes are completely safe for dogs to eat. However, it is still best to consult with your veterinarian before using any of these recipes. Speaking with them can help ensure all of your dog’s nutritional needs are being met.

(previous listed home-made meals)
The Home-Prepared Chicken Stew Diet : I make a chicken stew in the crock pot… i buy raw chicken thighs, peel / cut off the fat, fill 1/2 the crock pot with the raw chicken thighs, throw in about 1/2-1 cup of whatever “organ” meats i have,  peel and chop up 3 medium size sweet potatoes, then i add as much raw kale as will fit in the crock pot and pour in 1.5-2 cups of water.  To serve, i bake (microwave) a sweet potato (skinned and mashed) and use a portion of this added to each meal with the stew.

*** The chicken can be substituted with beef chuck roast, venison,lamb, pork, etc. ***

  • 3/4 cup of chicken stew
  • 1/4 cup of baked sweet potato … mashed
  • 1 tab of Vetri Science “Canine” Plus (for minierals & vitamins)
  • 1/2 tsp of steamed Bone Meal (UPCO procine bone meal. Purchased at 1lb for approx $12)
  • 1 tsp of cold pressed Coconut Oil

Variation of the Home-Prepared Chicken Stew Diet:

I put raw beef, green beans, frozen not canned, fresh carrots not frozen or canned, sweet potato and white potato and meat. If I use beef I put it into the pot with the veggies uncooked. If I use chicken,turkey or pork I cook the meat seperatly but I save the juice and add it to the veggies. My wife has shown me a better way for the potatoes cook them in the microwave then add them after everything is cooked. This way I do not need to add anything to thicken the soup, what a great idea she had. I also add apples or other fruits to the soups. I never use any spices at all I don’t think they need them. Pork, chicken and turkey will cook faster than the veggies and burn the bottom of the pot. I also add celery to the mix for fiber. Now for Thor the one that has early stage EPI he also gets raw beef at night, raw liver and I am looking into kidney and other organ meats I can feed him raw if possible. Thor also gets liquid glucosamine as well as B12  with intrinsic factor, vitamin ester C. He is my service dog and my baby.

Not to blow my own horn but I have been told by many people including my vet that I have very healthy dogs. I wish all of you success in you feeding routine for your dogs and cats. Thor is almost 8 now and is going to have a full blood panel done next week and I will keep everyone up to date on his health.

Arthur Brockner




A raw diet

We have feed raw for years.  We has switched all dogs to raw due to ear infections on grain free food.  Our epi dog was just switched to dry food but that will be changing back soon.  When you feed raw you need to balance a lot of things per most that feed it.  We are part of a large dog club that many have been feeding raw for 20 years.  They are my back bone and research center.  We are not quite as specific as they are but we do pull full blood panels on all the dogs every year to make sure what we are doing is correct.

We feed a ground food in the morning, usually beef, lamb and goat but occasionally deer.  We feed chicken necks or pork necks and occasionally turkey in the evening.  We have three dogs two when normal weight are low nineties and one in the mid 80s.  We feed the lighter dog 1 1/2 cups of raw food 2 x day and the other two 2 cups 2 x day.

They say you should feed no more than 10% organ meat so our butcher manages this in our ground food.  We do also purchase beef tongues, hearts and livers and give these in our training.  We do also make dehydrated lung as a treat too.

Veggies – this is our bad area.  They want a balanced veggie base of equal above ground and below ground veggies or you can get diarrehea or too much constipation.  Of course there are veggies you are to avoid…but assuming you know these!!  We also add flax seed, fruit, garlic and yogart to our veggies and give some organ meat to make it more appealing!!!  When we feed we feed only 1/4 cup with one feeling…usually the ground or my dog won’t eat it!!!  —we fail here and often don’t do this and the blood work is perfect, so not sure it is necessary!!

Vitamins – we use an ultimate vitamin from Nature’s Farmacy because it is easy also once a day…but we don’t do it every day either!!

We also supplement the dogs with mackerel, tuna, eggs and sardines…we alternate these when we remember!!!  The dogs get goat milk approx 1/4 cup with each meal when available (when goats are milking).

As you can see there is a lot to a balanced raw diet but I have a harder time scooping the dog food into the bowl that has been recalled so may times!!!  Get your meat only from a respected place and keep good techniques of caring for your meat and you shouldn’t have the issues that kibble has had!!!  It will get easier in time…but if you want to do it fully it is a lot of work!!!  But for the unconditional love you receive I feel they deserve to eat better than me!!!!



Diet for EPI with Fat Restricted Needs

When my dog developed Diabetes in addition to EPI, i found that i had to revise my home-prepared meal and greatly reduce the fat content in the meal to keep the diabetes blood sugar in control.  However, iIf you remove all fat from a diet, you eventually invite additional health concerns. I could not longer even give coconut oil, which my EPI dog used to thrive on, but i did discover that i was able to give fish oil capsules (EFA’s) as Essential Fatty Acids and this supplied the necessary EFAs the body requires.   The following is the EPI + Diabetes (low fat) diet that i found success with after much trial an error.

I first make batches of:
(1) baked, de-fatted and skinned chicken breasts and store in refrigerator
(2) i microwave multiple sweet potatoes, then skin, mash and store in container in refrigerator

The EPI + Low Fat diet for a 35 lb dog consists of:
3/4 cup of “Annamaet Lean & Grain Free” kibble
1/2 cup of minced de-fatted & skinned chicken breast
1/3 cup baked, skinned & mashed sweet potato.
1/3 cup any brand of “No Fat” cottage cheese
1/2 tsp “UPCO porcine bone meal” (in one meal a day only)
1 VetriScience Canine Plus vitamin (in one meal a day only)
550mg of EFAs (fish oil+ daily)

*** At the time, i needed to add the Annamaet Lean & Grain Free kibble for additional compressed calories to maintain weight without comparable calories in bulk whole food consequently raising diabetic blood sugar-  -adding the Annamaet may or may not be necessary for other dogs- -it will depend on their individual metabolism ***
HOWEVER….. please know that when this recipe was used Annamaet did not include peas in their product.  They have since changed the formula and many of our EPI dogs do not do well with too many peas, so this product may or may not work out with your dog… so you might need to use a different low fat kibble (for the diabetes part).  

Remember BONE matter when preparing home meals!!! (excellent article by WDJ “Whole Dog Journal 2-2022)

Calcium in Homemade Dog Food – Whole Dog Journal

Bone Broth and/or Meat Gelatin

By Patsy:

A basic recipe is to buy the meaty bones that suit you, from a butcher or Morrison’s supermarket (they are great for cheap dog friendly meat and bones) . Roast them for half an hour to get surplus fat out. Simmer in water in a slow cooker or low temperature oven for hours, as long as possible to extract nutritious stuff like the collagen, gelatine etc. I would put some vegetables in too, but not onions, or salt and pepper because they aren’t good for dogs. When it cools, remove the fat on the surface. If it’s cold it lifts off in a lump, but if still warm, I put pads of kitchen roll paper on top to soak it up.
Beef bones are great, but my dogs aren’t so good with chicken or lamb. Never use smoked or brined ham bones because they are loaded with salt.
You could also make fish stock with the bits that fishmongers throw out.
When I raw fed one of my rescues, I bought cheap turkey thighs or mince from Morrison’s. Always good quality. Plus their kidney, heart,liver and tripe. In Yorkshire we still have butchers shops selling weird offal like pigs bags, lights (lungs and heart). I’m sure it all goes in haggis, and something we have here which is still called faggots!


By Olesia:

Whenever i “bake” chicken, turkey, beef etc….. with or without bones……. when finished, i pour all the “meat/bone juice” in the bottom of the pan into a container that has a wide opening…..  like a bowl or wide mouth jar.

Put in the refrigerator.

When everything cools/solidifies….. take it out and ALL the fat will have solidified at the top.
Just take a spoon and scoop it all out…

The remainder is a healthy gelatin from the bone and/or meat for the dogs… and easy peasy to do :)


By Pam:





Sweet Potato vs. White Potato

Written by Dr. Jean Dodds and re-printed with permission from Dr. Dodds



There’s a famous old song with the lyrics, “You say potato, I say potahto; let’s call the whole thing off.” The songwriters obviously weren’t intending to compare the nutritional characteristics of white potatoes and sweet potatoes when they penned that line, but it’s not such a stretch. Navigating the white potato versus sweet potato maze can at times be confusing. So, let’s get to the root of this potato mystery and explain it once and for all.

Two Potatoes: two species
You might be surprised to discover that sweet potatoes are not just orange-colored white potatoes. Sweet potatoes and Russet potatoes, the most common white “baking” potato, come from completely different botanical families.


Russet potatoes are part of the Solanaceae family, which belongs to the nightshade group of plants. Many species of the Solanaceae family, including potatoes, naturally produce nitrogen-containing compounds called glycoalkaloids. Potatoes and other edible plants including eggplants, peppers and tomatoes produce glycoalkaloids as a natural defense against predators such as animals, insects and fungi. Glycoalkaloids are natural toxins that act as the plant’s natural pesticide and fungicide. You know those green spots sometimes evident on white potatoes? They indicate the presence of increased levels of glycoalkaloids and should be discarded, as should white potatoes that are already sprouting or bruised.

Glycoalkaloids affect the nervous system by disrupting membranes and the body’s regulation of acetylcholine, a chemical responsible for conducting nerve impulses. Signs of nightshade toxicity include headache, nausea, fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Some researchers believe that glycoalkaloids can damage the joints by producing inflammation and contributing to loss of calcium from bone, but this has not been proven.

In addition, studies show that glycoalkaloids in doses normally available while eating white potatoes can cause the membranes that line the intestines to become permeable (“leaky”); disrupting the intestinal barrier can initiate or aggravate Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD). This fact flies in the face of the common and successful use of potatoes that are included as a “bland” carbohydrate source, to be fed as a limited ingredient diet for animals with “leaky gut” and IBD.


Sweet potatoes are a completely different plant species than white potatoes. Sweet potatoes belong to the Convolvulaceae family and are known by the scientific name of Ipomoea batatas.

Since sweet potatoes are not nightshade plants, they do not produce toxic glycoalkaloids. A switch from white potatoes to sweet potatoes might be warranted if your dog suffers from a neurological, or unresolved gastrointestinal or inflammatory health issue.

Further, sweet potatoes contain many health-promoting properties.

Carotenoids, the pigments that give sweet potatoes their lovely orange hue, are powerful antioxidants with a variety of health benefits, including:
•  Pre-cursors to vitamin A, which is essential for a healthy body
•  Boost immune function, increasing the ability to fight infections, especially viral infections
•  Increased immune function that helps protect against cancer
•  Maintains healthy lining of the digestive tract, respiratory tract and skin
•  Improves retinal function, particularly night vision
•  Reduces inflammation

Sweet potatoes also contain more fiber than white potatoes; fiber slows the rate at which sweet potatoes break down into glucose (sugar) and are absorbed into the blood stream. Not surprisingly, white potatoes rank high on the glycemic index (GI), which measures how much a particular food raises blood sugar levels compared to pure glucose (glucose rates 100 on the glycemic index). According to Harvard Medical School, a baked white potato has a glycemic index of 111, which means that it raises blood sugar 111% as much as pure glucose! Sweet potatoes have a lower GI of 70.

While the GI of sweet potatoes might also seem high, sweet potatoes are shown to modulate and even improve blood sugar regulation! Sweet potatoes contain adiponectin, a protein hormone produced by fat cells that modulates insulin metabolism. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with people who have poorly-regulated insulin metabolism, while those with healthy insulin metabolism tend to have higher levels of adiponectin. So, while sweet potatoes are safe for even diabetics to eat, they should avoid consuming high GI white potatoes.

Sweet potatoes and gastrointestinal health
In an earlier post, we discussed the use soluble fiber in the form of pumpkin to control diarrhea in pets.

As we mentioned, there are two types of fiber – soluble and insoluble – and most foods contain a combination of the two.
•  Soluble fiber absorbs water from the digestive tract, forming a gel-like substance that slows down the digestive process. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley, psyllium, pumpkin, potatoes and sweet potatoes.
•  Insoluble fiber adds bulk to the stool and tends to speed up the passage of food through the digestive tract. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and certain vegetables such as cauliflower and green beans.(Vorvick, 2012; University of Maryland, 2011; Mayo Clinic, 2012)

Sweet potatoes, like pumpkin, are a good source of soluble fiber that can help regulate your pet’s digestive tract. However, when choosing between pumpkin and sweet potato, be aware that sweet potato contains more than double the calories than pumpkin, which can then “pack on the pounds”.

The bottom line
Clearly, sweet potatoes are a superior source of nutrition for companion animals than white potatoes.  Advantages of sweet potatoes:
•  Boost immune function
•  Lots of healthy antioxidants, including vitamin A and carotenoids
•  More fiber than white potatoes
•  No toxic glycoalkaloids
•  Protect against disease
•  Help modulate insulin regulation

Try steaming some sweet potato for a healthy and delicious addition to your pet’s diet. And, remember to always introduce new foods slowly; even healthy foods can provide “too much of a good” thing if introduced too quickly to delicate stomachs!

W. Jean Dodds, DVM
Hemopet / NutriScan
11561 Salinaz Avenue
Garden Grove, CA 92843

Cantwell, M 1996, ‘A Review of Important Facts about Potato Glycoalkaloids’, Perishables Handling Newsletter, no. 87, pp. 26-27.

Chilkov, N 2011, ‘Benefits of Carotenoids: What Colors are on Your Plate?’ Huffington Post, 1 August, 

Davis, J 2006, Glycoalkaloids, Food Safety Watch,

Harvard Health Publications, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load for 100+ Foods, Harvard Medical School, 

Health Canada 2011, Glycoalkaloids in Food, 

Patel, B, Schutte, R, Sporns, P, Doyle, J, Jewel, L, Fedorak, RN 2002, 2002, ‘Potato glycoalkaloids adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel disease’, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 8(5):340-6.

Skerrett, PJ 2012, Use glycemic index to help control blood sugar, Harvard Health Publications, Harvard Medical School, 13 August, 

The World’s Healthiest Foods 2013, What are nightshades and in which foods are they found? 

The World’s Healthiest Foods 2013, What’s New and Beneficial about Sweet Potatoes?